Stop Revoking Citizenships – BIRD Publishes Full Documentation

8 February 2016 – In the five years since the ‘Arab Spring’ uprising, which began on 14 February 2011, the stripping of citizenship has emerged as one of the most disturbing methods used to silence dissent. The first exercise of this power was in November 2012, when the Minister of Interior revoked the nationality of 31 opposition activists, ex-MPs and members of civil society. Many of them were rendered stateless, and in 2014 ten of them  were ordered for deportation.

Since then, the Minister of Interior’s powers have been formalised and the criminal courts have also been empowered to strip citizenship, under July 2014 amendments to the 1963 Citizenship Law. Persons can be stripped of citizenship for being security threats and if found “guilty” on terrorism charges. Bahrain’s unfair trial system, which relies heavily on confessions, lends itself to torture, the practice of which remains systematic.

In all, 260 persons have had their citizenship stripped. 208 of them lost their citizenship in 2015 alone. The majority of them will have been rendered stateless. Those made stateless can no longer renew their national ID cards. They cannot be legally employed, or registered in hospitals. They cannot renew their banking information and may be at risk of losing government-provided housing. Ten of the Bahrainis stripped of citizenship in 2012 were found guilty of illegal residency in 2014 and ordered to leave the country.

In 2014, the criminal courts exercised their new powers a few times, but it was in 2015 that the punishment became a common occurrence. The first and fourth criminal courts revoked the nationalities of 134 defendants in ten criminal cases. The largest such case, on 11 June 2015, saw 56 persons stripped of citizenship. November 2015 witnessed the heaviest court activity, with four separate case in which 31 persons were stripped of citizenship. Five persons stripped of citizenship were also sentenced to death.

In January 2015, the Minister of Interior exercised his powers again and revoked the nationality of 72 people. This remains the single largest act of its kind to date. Approximately 50 of those stripped of citizenship were from Bahrain’s civil society, many of them exiles, and included human rights activists, journalists, political activists and religious figures. Sending a deeply troubling message, the remainder, approximately 20 individuals, are known or suspected members of Al Qaeda and the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. To the Government of Bahrain, peaceful civil society is equated to terrorism.

BIRD strongly condemns all unfair exercise of the revocation of nationality, by both the Minister of Interior and the courts, and especially in cases where persons are rendered stateless. The stripping of citizenship of persons sentenced to death is particularly shocking, especially where there is reasonable risk that the individuals were tortured. We call on the Government of Bahrain to amend the Citizenship and Anti-Terrorism laws which allow the stripping of citizenship, to strengthen accountable oversight over such a process, and to reinstate the nationality of all persons rendered non-Bahraini for political reasons.

To mark the 5th anniversary of the 14 February 2011 protests, BIRD is publishing our documentation on the persons stripped of citizenship. Below is every person known to have been stripped of citizenship, their case, and their sentences.

Read the accompanying documentation, which features further information on each particular case and the persons involved.

Read our Director of Advocacy’s opinion on the practice.

Infographic: 5 Step Guide to Revoking Citizenship in Bahrain

Infographic: Timeline of Revoked Citizenships

31 December 2015: Demistan Case

No. Full Name Sentence
1 Hussein Abdulla Khalil Ebrahim Death
2 Ahmed Isa Abdulhussein Hussein Life
3 Mohsin Ebrahim Ali Al-Majed Life
4 Ahmed Mohammad Ahmed Fallah Life
5 Jassem Mohammad Rashed Khalil Ebrahim Life
6 Mohammad Hassan Mohammad Mahfooz Life
7 Mohammad Abdullah Mohammad Kathem Life
8 Jafar Abdullah Jafar Al-Dhaif Life
9 Mohammad Abdullah Jafar Al-Dhaif Life
10 Hussain Mohammad Ahmed Fallah Life
11 Mujtaba Aqeel Ebrahim Al-Majed Life
12 Mohammad Aqeel Ebrahim Al-Majed Life
13 Hassan Ebrahim Ali Makki Life
14 Mohammad Saeed Ahmed Hassan Salim Life
15 Mohammad Saleh Hassan Makki Life
16 Ahmed Mohammad Abdullah Mohammad Life
17 Ali Ebrahim Kathem Ebrahim Life
18 Abdulla Nasser Mohammad Abdulwahhab Life
19 Mohammad Habib Hilal Ahmed Yousif Life
20 Ahmed Mohammad Habib Mohammad Life
21 Ali Mohammad Habib Mohammad Life
22 Mohammad Jafar Mohammad Al-Demistani Life
23 Mohammad Habib Abdulaziz Mohammad Life

29 December 2015: Criminal Case

No. Full Name Sentence
24 Name Unknown 5
25 Name Unknown 10

23 November 2015: Criminal Case

No. Full Name Sentence
26 Mohammad Jawad Sabah Abdulmohsin 15
27 Hassan Sabah Abdulmohsin Mohammad 15
28 Sayed Ali Nezar Alawi Hassan 15
29 Mohammad Jawad Ebrahim Ali 10
30 Hussain Hilal Ahmen Al-Zaki 10
31 Ali Abdulshaheed Ali Yousif Al-Singace 10
32 Hassan Ahmed Kathem Hassan 10
33 Sayed Mohammad Salman Mahdi Mohsin Al-Musawi 10
34 Sayed Ahmed Salman Mahdi Mohsin Al-Musawi 10
35 Hassan Mohammad Ali Al-Zaki 10
36 Mohammad Ebrahim Mulla Ahmed 10
37 Jassem Yaqoub Yousef Mohammad 10
38 Jassem Mousa Jafar 10

15 November 2015: Criminal Case

No. Full Name Sentence
39 Hassan Sabah Abdul Mohsin Life
40 Jafar Ali Matooq Life
41 Ahmed Matooq Ebrahim Life
42 Ahmed Saeed Life
43 Sayed Alawi Taleb Life
44 Sayed Mohammad Saeed Life
45 Sayed Mahdi Sayed Hayder Life
46 Rida Khalil Jafar Life
47 Hassan Idris Life
48 Ali Abdulamir Life
49 Hussein Zaki Al-Madoob Life
50 Sayed Mahdi Hussain Ni’ma Life

9 November 2015: Criminal Case

No. Full Name Sentence
51 Jafar Jassim Majid Habib 10
52 Ebrahim Mohammad Al-Farhood 10

5 November 2015: Criminal Case

No. Full Name Sentence
53 Ahmed Al Sayed Hussein Sharaf Life
54 Ali Abdul Hussein Ali Ahmed Life
55 Fadhel Abbas Ali Isa Life
56 Sadiq Khalil Ebrahim Al-Hayaki Life
57 Jassim Ahmed Abdullah Life

11 June 2015: Bani Jamra Case

No. Full Name Sentence
58 Habib Abdulla Ali Life
59 Ahmad Jafar Mohammad 10
60 Sadiq Abdulla Isa Abdulla Al-Ghusra 15
61 Ahmed Mohammad Saleh Al-Arab Life
62 Sayed Mustafa Amin Ebrahim Ismael 15
63 Jameel Mohammad Hussain Al-Jamri Life
64 Ali Abdulamir Ali Hassan Khamis 15
65 Kathim Abdulla Jafar Kathim 15
66 Hassan Abdulla Isa Abdulla Al-Ghusra 15
67 Wa’il Mohammad Hussein Mohammad Ahmed 15
68 Hussain Jafar Ali Fateel 15
69 Hussain Ali Hussain Ahmed 15
70 Ali Abdulwahid Ebrahim Khalil Parweez 15
71 Jafar Hussain Mohammad Isa Adam 15
72 Mahmud Mohammad Ali Musa 15
73 Yassin Abdulwahid Yousif Idris Al-Ghanimi Life
74 Majid Mohammad Jassim Ahmed Al-Dilal 10
75 Habib Ali Habib Allawi 10
76 Yasser Abdulla Isa Abdulla Al-Ghusra 10
77 Ayman Abdulla Isa Abdulla Al-Ghusra 10
78 Mustafa Ali Jafar Mohammad Jafar Al-Jamri 10
79 Hussain Jafar Abdulrida Jafar Mohammad 10
80 Jawad Abdulla Al-Arab 15
81 Ali Taher Jafar Al-Shamimi 10
82 Ali Ahmed Ebrahim Ali Haroun 10
83 Hussein Mahdi Hassan Saeed 10
84 Ali Mahdi Hassan Saeed 10
85 Mujtaba Jafar Ali Ahmed Fateel 10
86 Ahmed Abdulla Ali Mulla Al-Arab 10
87 Hussain Isa Mohammad Adam 10
88 Ammar Hussein Mohammad Isa Adam 10
89 Hussein Abduljameel Hussein Ali Abdulrasool 10
90 Jafar Mohammad Jassim Al-Dalal 15
91 Yassin Mohammad Jassim Al-Dalal 10
92 Hassan Mohammad Hussein Ali 10
93 Hussein Ali Mohammad Fardan 10
94 Hussain Ali Bashar 10
95 Taher Mohammad Habib Al-Ghanimi 10
96 Jaber Mohammad Taher Habib Al-Ghanimi 10
97 Ebrahim Mohammad Taher Habib 10
98 Sadiq Jafar Ali Hussain Al-Asfoor 15
99 Ali Mohammad Salman Mohammad 15
100 Hussain Ahmed Mohsin Ali 15
101 Ahmed Mohammad Saleh Jassim 15
102 Ali Ahmed Mohsin Ali 15
103 Mohammad Jafar Abdulla Hassan 15
104 Mohammad Jafar Abdulrahman Mansoor Al-Kathim 15
105 Jafar Mohammad Jafar Mohammad Saleh 15
106 Saleh Jafar Kathim Yousif Kathim 10
107 Sayed Ali Amin Ibrahim Ismail 15
108 Isa Abdulla Isa Al-Sarah 10
109 Ali Mohammad Jafar 10
110 Sadiq Hussain Ni’ma Ebrahim 10
111 Sadiq Maki Jassim Mohammad Jassim 10
112 Mohammad Abdullah Ebrahim Abbas Hassan 10
113 Ali Jalal Jafar Ali Ahmed 13

29 April 2015: Ekir Case

No. Full Name Sentence
114 Salman Isa Ali Death
115 Isa Musa Abdulla Life
116 Ali Maki Ali Life
117 Abdulla Abduljalil Abdulla Life
118 Abdulhadi Ali Hassan Life
119 Yousif Abdulla Al-Natay Life
120 Abdulamir Hassan Radi Life
121 Hassan Abdulla Habib Life
122 Jafar Abdulamir Jafar 10
123 Jafar Yousif Ahmad 10
124 Hussain Abdullatif Mansoor 10
125 Hassan Ahmed Mohammad 10

23 April 2015: Sanabis Case

No. Full Name Sentence
126 Hani Ahmed Marhoon 15
127 Ibrahim Ahmed 15
128 Ahmed Naim Ahmed 15

26 February 2015: Daih Case

No. Full Name Sentence
129 Ali Abdulshaheed Al-Singace Death
130 Sami Mirza Mushaima Death
131 Abbas Jamil Taher Mohammad Al-Sameea Death
132 Ahmed Jaffar Mohammad Life
133 Ali Jameel Taher Mohammad Al-Sameea Life
134 Taher Yousif Ahmed Mohammad Al-Sameea Life
135 Hussain Ahmed Rashed Khalil Life
136 Rida Mirza Mushaima Life

31 January 2015: Ministerial Order

No. Full Name
137 Mohammed Hassan Ali Hussain
138 Farahat Khursheed Afrah Khursheed
139 Masood Mirza Jaffar Jahrami
140 Hussain Khairallah Mohammed Mahdi
141 Ali Asfandiyar Khadad Mohammed
142 Safa Al Dhawi Al-Adawi
143 Sayed Ahmed Mustafa Mohammed Al-Wadai
144 Sayed Qassim Majeed Ramadan Alawi
145 Ibrahim Ali Ibrahim Al-Aradi
146 Ibrahim Ali Hassan Al-Madhoon
147 Ishaq Faheem Ishaq Abdulrahman
148 Ahmed Jaffar Mohammed Ali
149 Ahmed Rashid Hameed Al-Jabri
150 Ahmed Ridha Mashaallah Shakeeb
151 Ahmed Mohammed Ali Saleh
152 Ayoub Mohammed Mustafa Al-Murbati
153 Turki Mubarak Abdullah Al-Binali
154 Jaffar Ahmed Hassan Al-Aal
155 Jaffar Ahmed Abdullah Salman
156 Jaffar Yahya Ali Hussain
157 Habib Abdullah Hussain Al-Jamri
158 Hassan Ahmed Abdullah Sulaiman
159 Hassan Abdullah Isa Al-Ghasra
160 Hassan Abdulnabi Hassan Ali
161 Hassan Ali Mohammed Juma Sultan
162 Hussain Jassim Ahmed Al-Hadad
163 Hussain Yousif Mohammed Jassim
164 Hamad Mubarak Juma Habib
165 Khalid Mohammed Abdullah Ali Al-Mannai
166 Daij Khalifa Abdullah Al-Thawadi
167 Rashid Ahmed Rashid Al-Rashid
168 Sami Ahmed Hamad Al-Mannai
169 Salman Ibrahim Mohammed Ali
170 Salman Abdullah Darweesh Abdullah
171 Salman Alyan Turki Al-Ashban
172 Saber Ali Ahmed Al-Salatna
173 Dhafer Salah Ali Saleh
174 Obada Adel Hassan Hamad
175 Abbas Hassan Ali Abusafwan
176 Abdulamir Jaffar Rashid Al-Aradi
177 Abdulaziz Nazar Ali Al-Jowder
178 Abdulghani Isa Ali Al-Khanjar
179 Abdullah Ibrahim Ahmed Al-Saleh
180 Abdullah Abdulrahim Abdullah Fakhro
181 Aqeel Ahmed Ali Mahfoodh
182 Aqeel Jaffar Ahmed Ridha
183 Ali Ahmed Ali Abdullah Al-Dairi
184 Ali Hassan Abdulrahman Fakhro
185 Ali Hassan Abdullah Abdulimam
186 Ali Mubarak Abdullah Al-Binali
187 Ali Mahmood Jaffar Al-Kharaz
188 Ammar Ahmed Ali Saqer Al-Atawi
189 Omar Jassim Mohammed Buzaboon
190 Omar Abdullah Mohammed Ali Al-Qahtani
191 Isa Abdullah Isa Al Sarh
192 Kareem Isa Ali Al Mahroos
193 Maher Othman Saleh Abadi
194 Mohammed Ali Ahmed Al-Tal
195 Mohammed Isa Yousif Saqar Al-Binali
196 Mohammed Mubarak Abdullah Al-Binali
197 Mahmood Nasser Juma Mushaima
198 Murtadha Majeed Ramadan Al-Sindi
199 Muhanad Yousif Hussain Al-Harmi
200 Maytham Omran Hussain Al-Jamri
201 Mirza Mohammed Ali Ramadan
202 Naji Ali Naji Qassim Al-Ruqaimi
203 Nawaf Mohammed Ahmed Saif
204 Yasser Abdulhussain Ali Al-Sayegh
205 Yasser Abdullah Isa Al-Ghusra
206 Yahya Ali Yahya Al-Hadid
207 Yousif Ahmed Hamad Abdullah Al-Mannai
208 Yousif Omran Jassim Omran

20 November 2014: Ekir Case

No. Full Name Sentence
209 Mohammad Abdulamir Abbas Hassan 10
210 Ahmed Yousif Jassem Ahmed 10
211 Salman Isa Ali Salman 10

29 September 2014: Qarya Case

No. Full Name Sentence
212 Jassem Ahmed Abdulla Ahmed Life
213 Hussein Ahmed Taher Abdulwahhab Life
214 Sayed Ali Shubur Sharaf Shubur Life
215 Aqeel Abdulrasool Mohammad Ahmed Life
216 Hussein Mahdi Mohammad Ebrahim Life
217 Ali Sabah Abdulmohsin Mohammad Life
218 Sayed Jafar Shubur Sharaf Shubur Life
219 Abdulmohsin Sabah Abdulmohsin Mohammad Life
220 Mohammad Jawad Sabah Abdulmohsin Life

6 August 2014: Criminal Case

No. Full Name Sentence
221 Hamid Jafar Mohammad 15
222 Nedal Ali Mohammad Isa 15
223 Ali Riyad Hameed Ali Sanqoor 15
224 Hussein Jassem Isa Al-Bana’ 22
225 Sayed Hashem Radi Hassan Majed 7
226 Mohammad Abbas Ebrahim Mahdi 7
227 Ali Hassan Adam Qahir 7
228 Ali Ahmed Al-Asfoor 7
229 Jalal Ali Mohammad Ali 7

6 November 2012: Ministerial Order

No. Full Name
230 Saeed Al-Shehabi
231 Ebrahim Ghuloom Karimi
232 Jafar Ahmed Al-Hasabi
233 Ali Hassan Mushaima
234 Abdulraouf Al-Shehabi
235 Mousa Abdali Mohammad
236 Abbas Abdulaziz Omran
237 Mohammad Mahmoud Al-Kharraz
238 Qasim Badr Hashem
239 Hassan Amir Akbar Sadiq
240 Sayed Mohammad Ali Al-Mousawi
241 Abdulhadi Abdulrasoul Ahmed
242 Alawi Saeed Sayed Sharaf
243 Hussain Abdulshaheed Hubail
244 Husain Mirza Abdulbaqi
245 Khalid Hameed Mansour
246 Kamal Ahmed Ali
247 Ghulam Khairallah Mohammadi
248 Mohammad Ebrahim Hussain Fathi
249 Sayed Abdulnabi Al Mousawi
250 Taymour Abdulla Jumaa Karimi
251 Mohammed Ridha Mortadha Abed
252 Habeeb Darweesh Ghuloom
253 Ebrahim Ghuloom Abbas
254 Mariam Sayyed Ebrahim
255 Abdulamir Ebrahim Al-Mousawi
256 Ebrahim Khalil Ghuloom
257 Ismail Khalil Ghuloom
258 Adnan Ahmed Ali
259 Jawad Fairooz Ghuloom
260 Jalal Fairooz Ghuloom